By Professor (Chair) Randy J Lapolla, Chenglong Huang
This publication is a whole reference grammar of Qiang, one of many minority languages of southwest China, spoken by way of approximately 70,000 Qiang and Tibetan humans in Aba Tibetan and Qiang self reliant Prefecture in northern Sichuan Province. It belongs to the Qiangic department of Tibeto-Burman (one of the 2 significant branches of Sino-Tibetan). The dialect offered within the publication is the Northern Qiang sort spoken in Ronghong Village, Yadu Township, Chibusu District, Mao County. This e-book, the 1st book-length description of the Qiang language in English, is the results of a long time of labor at the language, and is as typologically accomplished as attainable. It contains not just the reference grammar, but in addition an ethnological assessment, a number of totally analyzed texts (mostly conventional stories), and an annotated word list. The language is verb ultimate, agglutinative (prefixing and suffixing), and has either head-marking and based marking morphology. The phonology of Qiang is sort of advanced, with 39 consonants at seven issues of articulation, plus advanced consonant clusters, either in preliminary and ultimate place, in addition to vowel concord, vowel size differences, and a collection of retroflexed vowels. The grammar additionally
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Qiang: With Annotated Texts and Glossary (Mouton Grammar Library)
M˙-t˚|î-xt®|åp˙-t˚ DIR-NEG -CON-dark-GEN Æbefore it got darkﬂ b. 11b), the stress is only on the directional prefix, and so the root vowel reduces to [˙]. g. the prefix). 12) a. b. c. d. a må˙a Æoneﬂ + NEG + DIR + Æoneﬂ + gu˙ ≥u˙ dzu˙ tu Æbasketﬂ > COP > Æsitﬂ > Æspanﬂ > ag‘u‘˙ må≥‘u‘˙ ˙z‘u‘˙ åt‘u Æone basketfullﬂ Æis notﬂ Æsit! (imperative)ﬂ Æone handspanﬂ If the final is /˙/, then it is simply dropped. 1. 13) a. b. c. d. ˙s˙b˙ tsu˙ + + Æbeeﬂ + Æwaterﬂ + DIR DIR dz˙ t˚h˙ ≈®˙ Â˙ Æeatﬂ Ædrinkﬂ Æmanureﬂ Æoxﬂ > > > > ˙z s˙t˚ b˙≈® tsu˙Â Æeat!
Transitives can be formed from intransitives, or ditransitives from transitives, by the addition of the causative suffix. There is no intransitivizing marking other than the reduplication that marks the reciprocal. When a verb is part of a predicate (verb complex), it can be preceded by an adverbial, a directional prefix, a negative marking prefix, and an aspectual prefix, and can be followed by the causative suffix, aspectual suffixes, and person marking suffixes. This complex can be followed by clause final particles marking illocutionary force, modality, mood, and evidentials.
Qiang has both head marking and dependent marking. 2). There is no other agreement marking in Qiang. e. there are no syntactic pivots—see Van Valin & LaPolla 1997, Ch. 6 on this concept); the postpositions and person marking are 20 Introduction of the semantically based type discussed in Dixon 1994, Ch. 2. The use of the topic marker, and to some extent the non-actor person marking, are controlled by pragmatic factors. While the word order is generally verb-final, the order of noun phrases is determined by pragmatic factors.