By Renato Constantino
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Extra info for A History of the Philippines: From the Spanish Colonization to the Second World War
This ﬁts quite neatly with Hofstede (1980; 1991 and 2001) who is possibly the most quoted authority on national culture. He suggests that national culture is a collective mental programming of the people of a nationality. He further suggests that people share a collective national character that shapes their values, attitudes, competencies, behaviour and perceptions of priority. In short, people of a nation have a cultural mental programming. This will be used as the working deﬁnition of culture within this chapter.
In large, Indian cities’ lorries are restricted in daytime hours. 5 There has been a huge increase in domestic air travel, but airports have not improved to meet the increased demand. As a result, airports are operating beyond design limits, and there have been stories of aeroplanes queuing in the skies to land (Economist, 2006b). A similar story emerges with the railways where there has been little investment and a fall in freight due to the high costs. 5% of GDP. 6% of its GDP on its infrastructure.
India and China suffer from the same problems with regard to large rural populations, pollution, unemployment and income disparities. Both countries have undertaken economic reform. China was a command economy that has been effectively “opened up” after being closed to the rest of the world and has beneﬁted from these reforms. India describes itself as the world’s largest democracy; it has been slow to open up its economy but is now beginning to attract investment. Both countries have set ambitious targets for economic growth, but both have problems within their infrastructures and systems that must be resolved if they are to meet these targets.