By F.G.A. Stone and Robert West (Eds.)
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Extra info for Aging and Cognition: Knowledge Organization and Utilization
Models for understanding the activity memory data have focused both on encoding and retrieval processes. Our conceptualization combines the models of others with an overall emphasis on contextual issues. The contextual model proposes that retention depends not only on current cognitive processes, but also on the context in which information was learned. According to that model, recall will improve when the to-be-remembered information is presented within a meaningful general context (Hultsch & Deutsch.
1987). Several studies have investigated whether motor cues alone or the combination of motor and visual cues are important in activity recall. The recall of SPTs with objects present was compared to the recall of SPTs without objects. No differences in recall were found in some studies (BWcman & Nilsson, 1984;R. L. Cohen, 1988;R L. Cohen, Peterson. & Mantini-AtMnson. 1987, Experiment 1). although in one case, items without objects yielded better recall than those with objects (R L. Cohen, Peterson, & Mantini-Atkfnson, 1987,Experiment 2).
8), So this group would differ quantitatively but not qualitatively from the first Experimental Group. Thus, we could say that two things are qualitatively different if one contained relatively more or less of a feature than another, or in other words. if the values of their feature vectors were not scalar multiples of one another. 2,1). The point here is that questions about quality are inevitably reducible to questions about measurable quantities. This, by no means, trivializes our original goal of exploring qualitative age differences, but rather facilitates it.